"You can fool all the people some of the time, and some of the people all the time, but you cannot fool all the people all the time."
Abraham Lincoln          

Accusing any widely accepted theory of having been motivated to fool people is not a position we choose. However, Lincoln’s quote does make us believe that anything deviating from truth must have its day in which its erroneous nature is unveiled. Therefore, we do choose a position to encourage tighter scrutinizing on many of them.

Chp 02 Part of the Time Line

4. Part of the Time Line

With the removal of the Olbers’ Paradox, backed by Newton’s brave assumption, this is what we can imagine how the universe may once have been: 

Once upon a time, a time that proceeded far more limitlessly to any temporal boundary that the current Big Bang theory could ever speculate with its own reasoning, the universe was so dark and tranquil that there was no apparent movement of anything, neither was glowing from anything. But it was not absolutely empty. This highly vacuum space did have material particles sparingly speckled here and there; the distances between these particles were no more genuinely of astronomical figures. These material particles, which could be of any size, were quietly “hanging” in space because of the gravitational equilibrium among them. Such an equilibrium state matched what Newton described in elaborating his idea of the boundless space. Although his idea was to explain the contribution of the stars in space, his principle should also be applicable to our yet absolute dark space; gravitational force has no discrimination for or against an object’s luminosity. The reason for the absolute darkness was that the time for the triggering of the existence of any star was not yet matured. The universe permanently needs star to express its brightness. Stars are the inferno of nuclear reaction; any nuclear reaction must have its initial time. Given that nuclear reaction requires materials to pre-exist so that conversion reaction can start, we should not be surprised that much of these peaceful material hanging in the absolutely darkness must have been invested with formidable amount of energy. Without this kind of material, no star can be born.

In an unlimited space, absolute gravitational balance among all materials could not be maintained. Any minor defect of the balance would have left an opening for the gravitational force to gradually work in the other way: from balancing those material particles between certain distances to pulling them together. Because of such local defect, materials incessantly grouped each other at where they felt gravitational balance losing grip.   Starting from a minor defect, this grouping of materials was a time-consuming process. That it was so inevitably time consuming was because not only the distance between them was enormous in comparison to their average volume, but also the near perfect gravitational balance had provided each of them with near zero incentive to deviate away from the balancing position.

To give a feeling how tiny the gravitational force could be between these materials so distributed in space, we could take some figures from our Solar system for an illustration. If we add all materials of the Solar system together, including the Sun and all the planets, and evenly distribute these materials in a sphere that has a radius of the distance between the Sun and Pluto, we would have two rain drops in every 1,000 m3 of space. This simply means that each two rain drop, if combined together, has 10 meters of distance with its immediate neighbor. If we consider the materials quantity and the space between galaxies, or clusters of galaxy, the distance between material particles should be far more gigantic and their spatial distribution is far scarcer. Many scientists believe that the ordinary matter in the universe should have a density of 0.2 atoms in every cubic meter. Gravitational force caused by materials of such a low density can hardly make any sense in our daily life.

Nevertheless, no matter how difficult the distance may seem to be overcome, once the defect of equilibrium appeared, gravitational force persistently worked its way in with its spontaneous and irreversible nature, forcing material chunks to approach each other. During the process of grouping, the materials gradually piled up to a concentrated location with two critical factors: substance and energy. By energy, at this point, we do not mean the internal energy with which the materials had been invested, but the kinetic energy that was resulted by the gravitational movement of the materials. Of course, the beginning quantity of either the substance or the mechanical energy was insignificant. However, with the growing of the size of each material group, the scale of impact gradually changed. We can imagine that if such piling up could happen in one location in the space, it must also have the same possibility to happen elsewhere in the universe, although no regular pattern of how these locations were spreading could be described with certainty besides two words: isotropic and homogeneous. It could also be natural to imagine that some of the piling up may be bigger than some others. If the materials were of fuel of high energy content, as they continued to fall on each other, a highly explosive entity was gradually formed at where they piled up. In other words, the universe was gradually stocked with numerous highly explosive entities here and there, everywhere. As numerous and highly explosive as they could be, we must keep in mind, however, that the distance between all these explosive entities were insanely huge.


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